Hello everyone, and welcome to the C3 Weekly
Update! As we round out February, the Consortium is moving
ahead with its research projects. The YouTube project continues
developing now that we are doing
a thorough content analysis from across all of our coding samples, and
to start distributing some interesting bits through the C3 Weekly
Update in the coming weeks,
in preview of the white paper we are putting together and the C3
Partners Retreat in May. Meanwhile, the students are currently wrapping
up a draft of work
on understanding the nature of viral media, which we look forward to
sharing through the newsletter and other venues in the coming months.
Speaking of viral, our colloquium event went well
last Thursday night. In addition to having C3 Consulting Researcher
Shenja van der Graaf participating in the event,
we were glad to see some folks there representing C3 partners. I know
many of you weren't here in Boston for the event, but the conversation
was recorded for podcast
by the team at the Program in Comparative Media Studies and will be
made available through their site, and ours, in the coming weeks. As
you will see in the blog section later
in the newsletter, I included some notes on our Consortium weblog
during the event, and we hope you all find the event of interest. It
was certainly in line with many of the issues we've been researching of
late in terms of viral media, the use and usefulness of that biological
metaphor, and the C3 team's notion of spreadability. In particular,
these student projects are focusing on viral marketing, viral
distribution, and viral aesthetics, and they feed into a
Consortium-wide focus on the digital spread of media content among
Otherwise, several members of the C3 community are
planning on converging in Philadelphia in a couple of weeks for the
Society for Cinema and Media Studies Conference, where a variety of
Consortium academic members will be presenting research. Look at the
"upcoming" calendar for more information on the focuses of those
presentations. Since C3 Director Henry Jenkins, C3 Research Manager
Joshua Green, and myself are all presenting at the conference, we look
forwarding to seeing several member of our community of consulting
researchers there for the event. If any members of our corporate
partner companies are interested in more information about what SCMS is
and what the conference is about, feel free to get in touch.
Finally, we wanted to note that the Lev Manovich
talk at MIT mentioned in last week's C3 Weekly Update has been
postponed, so that event will not be taking place as part of our
event here in May. We will have more information forthcoming about our
schedule of events for that Thursday and Friday.
CMS Research Fair
This Thursday, we are participating in the Program
in Comparative Media Studies' Research Fair, which will include not
just the Consortium but all of the other research groups affiliated
with our program here at CMS. Those groups include The Center for
Future Civic Media, The Education Arcade, The HyperStudio Laboratory
for Digital Humanities, Project New Media Literacies, and The
Singapore-MIT GAMBIT Game Lab. We would love for several of you to join
us, not just to get a chance to talk about what the Consortium does but
also to see the wide variety of work that the CMS program is involved
with and what our sister research projects are currently working on.
For those of you who receive this newsletter without a clear
understanding as to the research environment our work is accomplished
in, or the overarching interest of the program we are situated in, we
encourage you to come to this event and learn about some of these other
projects. If you have any questions about Thursday's event,
please don't hesitate to get in touch directly.
Otherwise, don't forget to mark your calendars for
the Consortium Retreat on Thursday, May 08, and Friday, May 09. It will
be a chance for the Consortium to come together for our team, some of
our consulting researchers, and representatives from C3's partners to
discuss current issues in studying, creating, and distributing content
in the media industries. Our team will present some portions of the
research that we've been working on to provoke a discussion across the
Consortium, and we will further discuss the future direction of the
Consortium's focus and work as this research project continues to
evolve, thanks in part to the various contributions from many of our
readers and contributors.
This Week's C3 Weekly Update
This week's newsletter concludes two series. We
run the final piece of Henry Jenkins' update of his work in Convergence
Culture in the Opening Note. We'd love to hear any feedback you
might have about Henry's work as it waits for eventual publication in
the paperback version of the Consortium's title book, as well as an
upcoming anthology edited by Jonathan Gray.
The Closing Note this week is a conclusion to the
piece that C3 Consulting Researcher Stefan Werning has been running for
some time on programmable technologies in business contexts.
And, as usual, we include links to the latest blog
posts from the Consortium's site. This week's blog posts include pieces
from myself and our team of graduate student researchers, as well as C3
Director Henry Jenkins.
If you have any questions or comments or would
like to request prior issues of the update, direct them to Sam Ford,
editor of the C3 Weekly Update, at firstname.lastname@example.org.
In This Issue
Opening Note: Henry Jenkins on the CNN/YouTube
Debates, Part VI
Glancing at the C3
Closing Note: Stefan Werning on Programmable
Technologies in Business Contexts, Part III
Thursday, Feb. 28, 5-7 p.m.
CMS Research Fair 2008
Featuring CMS Research Groups, including the MIT Convergence Culture
Consortium: TSMC Lobby and Bldg. 32, Rm. 155, Stata Center
Thursday, March 06-Sunday, March 09
for Cinema and Media Studies Conference,
Featuring the following presentations:
Understanding Vast Narratives and Immersive Story
Worlds by C3 Project Manager Sam Ford
Bond in Bondage: Ratings Creep, Violence, and
Casino Royale by C3 Consulting Researcher Kevin Sandler
The Public Sphere in a "Hybrid Media Ecology":
YouTube, Network Television, and Presidential Politics by C3
Director Henry Jenkins
Architectures of Participation: Wiki Fandom and
the Case of LostPedia by C3 Consulting Researcher Jason Mittell
The People Formerly Known As: What Happens to the
Audience When We're All "Users"? by C3 Research Manager Joshua
Framing Motion: Early Cinema's Conservative
Method's of Display by C3 Consulting Researcher Ted Hovet
Scholarly Writing in the Digital Age workshop
featuring C3 Consulting Researcher Jason Mittell
The Future of Television Studies workshop
chaired by C3 Principal Investigator William Uricchio
Location Matters: Spatial Logics of
Bollywood-Dotcom Convergence by C3 Consulting Researcher Aswin
Thursday, March 06, 5-7 p.m.
MIT Communications Forum: Prime Time in Transition
Featuring Howard Gordon, Barbara Hall, and John Romano: Bartos Theater,
Wiesner Building, MIT Media Lab
Saturday, March 08, 2-3 p.m.
by Southwest Interactive Opening Remarks
Featuring C3 Director Henry Jenkins and Steven Johnson, Austin, TX
Thursday, March 13, 5-7 p.m.
MIT Communications Forum: Global TV
Featuring Eggo Müller, Roberta Pearson, and William Uricchio:
Bartos Theater, Wiesner Building, MIT Media Lab
Friday, March 21, 10-11:30 a.m.
Valuing Fans Outside the Target Demographic: Soap
Opera Fans and Proselytizing
C3 Project Manager Sam Ford's presentation as part of the soap opera
area of the National
Popular Culture Association Conference, San Francisco
Thursday, April 10, 5-7 p.m.
MIT Communications Forum: Our World Digitized: The
Good, the Bad, the Ugly
Featuring Yochai Benkler and Cass Sunstein: Bartos Theater, Wiesner
Building, MIT Media Lab
Co-sponsored by the MIT Center for Future Civic Media
Thursday, April 24, 5-7 p.m.
MIT Communications Forum: Youth and Civic
Featuring Lance Bennett, Ian V. Rowe: Bartos Theater, Wiesner Building,
MIT Media Lab
Co-sponsored by the MIT Center for Future Civic Media
Friday, April 25
Passions 2008 Conference
C3 Project Manager Sam Ford presents "Outside the Target Demographic"
as part of the Gendered Fan Labor in New Media and Old panel.
Thursday, May 08, and Friday, May 09
C3's Spring Retreat
Thursday, May 22, to Monday, May 26
for Social Impact, Conference of the
Interntional Communication Association
C3 Research Manager Joshua Green will make two presentations at this
Montreal event. Details forthcoming.
Why Mitt Romney Won't Debate a
Snowman, Part VI: The Downsides of Digital Democracy
This concluding portion of a series from C3
Director Henry Jenkins is the culmination of a six-part look at
and democracy in a digital age. The previous five pieces ran in the
past few C3 Opening Notes. This series has given C3 Weekly Update
advance version of Jenkins' latest essay, which will be featured as an
for the paperback edition of Convergence Culture and as part of
a forthcoming book from Jonathan Gray, who was one of the speakers at
the Futures of Entertainment 2 conference. The previous four pieces in
this series have ran in prior Opening Notes.
If this essay can be read as a defense of the Snowman as
a meaningful and valid participant in a debate about the future of
American democracy, it is at best a qualified defense. I have tried to
move us from an understanding of the CNN/YouTube debates through a lens
of digital revolution in favor of a model based on the ever more
complicated interplay of old and new media and on the hybrid media
ecology that has emerged as groups with different motives and goals
interact through shared media portals.
I have tried to move beyond thinking of the snowman as
trivializing public policy debates towards seeing parody as a strategy
which a range of different stakeholders (official and unofficial,
commercial and grassroots, entertainers and activists) are deploying
towards their own ends, each seeking to use Youtube as a distribution
hub and tapping social networks to insure the broader circulation of
While I believe very firmly in the potential for
participatory culture to serve as a catalyst for revitalizing civic
life, we still fall short of the full realization of those ideals. As
John McMuria has noted, the
democratic promise of YouTube as a site open to everyone's
participation is tempered by the reality that participation is unevenly
distributed across the culture. An open platform does not necessarily
insure diversity. The mechanisms of user-moderation work well when they
help us to evaluate collectively the merits of individual contributions
and thus push to the top the best content; they work badly when they
pre-empt the expression of minority perspectives and hide unpopular and
alternative content from view.
Chuck Tyron has
argued that the speed with which such videos are produced and
circulated can undercut the desired pedagogical and activist goals,
sparking short-lived and superficial conversations among consumers who
are always looking over their shoulders for the next new thing. To put
it mildly, the user comments posted on YouTube fall far short of
Habermassian ideals of the public sphere, as was suggested by one
blogger's parody of the CNN/YouTube debates. Here, the candidates
interact in ways more commonly associated with the online responses to
the posted videos:
SEN. CHRISTOPHER DODD: omg that video was totaly
SEN. BARACK OBAMA: Shut up Dodd thats offensive
when u say gay like that.
FORMER SEN. MIKE GRAVEL: Check out my vids at
REP. DENNIS KUCINICH: to answre your question
bush is a facist who only wants more power. hes not even the president
you knopw, cheny is. i would b different because i would have a vice
presidant that doesnt just try and control everything from behind the
SEN. HILLARY CLINTON: CHENEY CANT BE PRESIDENT
BECUZ THE CONSTITUTION SAYS THE VICE PRESIDENT IS NOT THE PRESIDENT WHY
DON'T U TRY READING THE CONSTITUTION SOMETIME??????!!!!
See more here.
Here, YouTube is associated more with mangled syntax,
poor spelling, misinformation, and fractured logic than with any degree
of political self-consciousness or citizenly discourse. Yet, Youtube
can not be understood in isolation from a range of other blogging and
social network sites where the videos often get discussed in greater
depth and substance.
The insulting tone of this depicted interaction captures
something of the no-holds-barred nature of political dialogue on
Youtube. In an election whose candidates include women,
African-Americans and Hispanics, Catholics and Mormons, groups which
have historically been under-represented in American political life,
online parody often embraces racist, sexist, and xenophobic humor,
which further discourages minority participation or conversations
across ideological differences.
One popular genre of internet parodies depict insult
matches between Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama or their supporters
(typically represented as women and minorities). One prototype of this
style of humor was a MADtv sketch, which drew more than half a million
viewers when it was posted online. The sketch ends with a Guiliani
supporter clapping as the two Democratic campaigns rip each other
apart, suggesting an interpretation focused on the dangers of party
infighting. But, this frame figures little in the public response to
the video, whether in the form of comments posted on the site (such as
one person who complained about being forced "to pick between a Nigger
and a woman") or videos generated by amateur media producers (which
often push the original's already over-the-line humor to even nastier
Here, "politically incorrect" comedy provides a
opportunity for the public to laugh at the the unseemly spectacle of a
struggle between women and African-Americans or may offers a
justification for trotting out ancient but still hurtful slurs and
allegations -- women are inappropriate for public office because of,
haw, "that time of the month"; African-American men are irresponsible
because they are, haha, likely to desert their families, to go to jail,
or experiment with drugs.
Another website posted a range of Photoshop collages
about the campaign submitted by readers, including ones showing Hillary
in a yellow jump suit waving a samurai sword on a mocked-up poster for Kill
Bill, Obama is depicted as Borat in a parody which plays
upon his foreign sounding name, and Obama is depicted as a chauffer
driving around Mrs. Clinton in an ad for a remake of Driving Miss
Daisy. (See here).
Such parodies use humor to put minority candidates and
voters back in "their place," suggesting that women and blacks are
inappropriate candidates for the nation's highest office. This problem
may originate from the interplay between old and new media: the racist
and sexist assumptions structured the original MadTV segment and may
account for why internet fans were drawn to it in the first place; the
subsequent reactions amplify its problematic aspects, though the
amateur responses stoop lower than network standards and practices
In doing so, Internet parody producers fall far short of
the "ethical spectacles." In Dream:
Re-imagining Progressive Politics in an Age of Fantasy, Stephen
Duncombe advocates: "A progressive ethical spectacle will be one that
is directly democratic, breaks down hierarchies, fosters community,
allows for diversity, and engages with reality while asking what new
realities might be possible" (126).
By contrast, too many of the parody videos currently
circulating on YouTube do the opposite -- promoting traditional
authority, preserving gender and racial hierarchies, fragmenting
communities, discouraging diversity, and refusing to imagine any kind
of social order other than the one which has long dominated American
government. Speaking to a Mother Jones reporter, Lawrence
Lessig explained, "If you look at the top 100 things on YouTube or
Google it's not like it's compelling art. There's going to be a lot of
questions about whether it's compelling politics either. We can still
play ugly in lots of ways, but the traditional ways of playing ugly are
sort of over." All of this is to suggest that Romney would have faced
things far more frightening than snowmen if he had ventured into the
uncharted and untamed space of YouTube rather than the filtered and
protected space provided him by CNN.
The advent of new production tools and distribution
channels have lowered barriers of entry into the marketplace of ideas.
These shifts place resources for activism and social commentary into
the hands of everyday citizens, resources which were once the exclusive
domain of the candidates, the parties, and the mass media. These
citizens have increasingly turned towards parody as a rhetorical
practice which allows them to express their skepticism towards
'politics as usual,' to break out of the exclusionary language through
which many discussions of public policy are conducted, to find a shared
language of borrowed images that mobilize what they know as consumers
to reflect on the political process.
Such practices blur the lines between producer and
consumer, between consumers and citizens, between the commercial and
the amateur and between education, activism, and entertainment, as
groups with competing and contradictory motives deploy parody to serve
their own ends. These tactics are drawing many into the debates who
would once have paid little or no attention to the campaign process. As
they have done so, they have brought to the surface both inequalities
in participation and deep rooted hostilities between groups within
American society. Democracy has always been a messy business: the
politics of parody offer us no easy way out yet it does offer us a
chance to rewrite the rules and transform the language through which
our civic life is conducted.
a Ninja Special Delivery 4 "Net Neutrality"
the Snowman -- CNN/YouTube Debate: Global Warming
the Snowman -- The Original
the Snowman -- Billiam the Snowman Responds to Mitt Romney
Snowman Vs. Romney
Trump Fires Bush
Johnson -- "Daisy"
Holt, Mitt Romney Meets Jaguar
Clinton -- Sopranos Spoof
and Dunlap on the CNN YouTube Democratic Debate
Hillary vs. Obama
Huckabee, "Chuck Norris Approved"
"Bomb Bomb Bomb, Bomb Bomb Iran"
Girl, "I Got a Crush…On Obama"
Snowman Challenges Mitt Romney to Debate
"John Edwards Feeling Pretty"
"I'm a Democrat, I'm a Republican"
Spartan Life, "Net Neutrality"
"Al Gore's Penquin Army"
I'm Rudy Guiliani and I Approve This Message
& Snowmen Unite AGAINST Romney!"
chief faculty investigator for the Convergence Culture Consortium and
is Director of the Comparative Media Studies program and the Peter de
Florez Professor of Humanities at MIT. His blog is available here
Glancing at the C3 Blog
Hearing on the Future of the Internet. Sam Ford writes about
Monday's hearing in Boston from the Federal Communications Commission
on Internet policy, held at Harvard Law School, and about some of the
biggest issues being discussed around the hearing, particularly net
Makes Major Shift in Soap Opera Production This Week. Sam Ford
writes about major technological changes in the world of soap operas,
based on innovations from Procter & Gamble's Guiding Light
that will debut later this week.
Game Franchises Come to Film. Sam Ford writes about a new deal
announced between Hasbro and Universal Pictures to make feature films
of their most popular board games and the challenges of creating a
feature film based on a game like Monopoly.
and Viral Media--Notes from the CMS/C3 Colloquium. Sam Ford writes
about comments made by C3 Consulting Researcher Shenja van der Graaf,
Mike Rubenstein, and Natalie Lent, as well as audience members, during
last Thursday night's C3-sponsored event, which will be forthcoming in
Media--Hows and Whys. Sam Ford writes about this
colloquium for the Program in Comparative Media Studies at MIT last
Thursday night, dealing with viral media development and viral
Bleak House to Random House. C3
Graduate Student Researcher Ana Domb writes about news that Random
House will begin selling individual chapters of some books online and
what this model might mean for distribution in other media.
Declared HD Winner, Ending Format War. Sam Ford writes about some
press reaction and thoughts about the
conclusion of the high-definition DVD format war and that, while the
war might end technological innovation, investment in a central
technology might lead to increasing content development and innovation.
Culture and Behavioral Targeting. C3 Graduate Student Researcher
Eleanor Baird writes about some of her own thesis work on online
advertising and behavioral targeting in the Sloan School of Management
here at MIT.
Dialogue, and Independence. Sam Ford writs about community
management and the relationship between fans and media properties,
based on recent posts from C3 Consulting Researcher Robert V.
Kozinets and Nancy Baym.
the Consortium: In Media Res, Massless Communication, and
User-Generated Branding. Several researchers affiliated with C3
have run pieces recently for the In Media Res project, while C3
Graduate Student Researcher Eleanor Baird has launched a blog based on
her thesis research called Massless Communication and C3 Consulting
Researcher Robert V. Kozinets writes about "user-generated branding."
ISPs and Piracy Monitoring. Sam Ford writes about pressure
from the British government for service providers to monitor potential
pirates' activities and the ISPs' resistance.
Buzz as a Catalyst and a Symptom of Popularity. Sam Ford writes
about a recent study looking at potential relationships between
blogosphere and social networking discussions about albums and album
sales, based on a recent study from the NYU Stern Business School.
Follow the Blog
Don't forget – you can always post, read, and
online conversations with the C3 team at our blog.
Economic Codes: Some Thoughts
the Impact of Programmable Technologies in Business Contexts, Part III:
The first two sections of this series ran in the
previous two Closing Notes.
While the brief case study presented last week in the C3
Closing Note focused on one paradigmatic theory of business
administration, other popular notions in that field exhibit similar
rhetoric and arguments infused with the logic of program code; for
instance, Geert Hofstede prominently theorized culture in
business contexts as "software that runs on minds" in his 1991 book Cultures
and Organizations: Software of the Mind. Accordingly, game
designers and consultants formulate or at least illustrate their
concepts along the lines of algorithmic expressbility. For instance,
Michael Bhatty (Ascaron/ phenomedia) designed his model of project
management in game development using a quasi-UML model which suggest
applicability. in his 2007 /GameStar/dev essay "Der 'Game
Director' als Regisseur." More importantly, Bhatty presents a very
basal model of quality, time and budget as three vertices of a triangle
which is supposed to be rotated to determine the mutual dependency of
the 'variables' determined by the respective priority as e.g. a focus
on budget lowers quality and raises development time.
This fairly straightforward idea, thus, appears inspired
by or even developed from the tentative visualization of data and
relations and the playful permutation of the main parameters in a
process which both is reminiscent of Lev Manovich's notion of
'transcoding' as a property of "new" (i.e. digital) media and
exemplifies the assumed 'inherent' ludicity of programmable media
systems I have posited in an earlier C3 piece and explore further in
the context of my dissertation.
The more common-place technique of mood boards and
mood paintings to guide the early development process can similarly
be read as a quasi-algorithmic piece of 'code' which structures the
development team as programmable entity. (cf. e.g. a mood board for the
game Killzone in GEE 9, 2004: 38)
In their 2000 Design Studies essay "Sources of
Inspiration," Claudia Eckert and Martin Stacey describe mood boards in
the fashion industry as defining a common "language" or at least
vocabulary of design, a process which can be extrapolated to describe
others aspects of media creation as well. (Eckert/Stacey, 2000) Rather
than language in a linguistic sense, I would argue that mood boards
'install' a common set of functions or 'scripts' (largely congruent
with the early notion of scripts in AI research after Schank/Abelson)
as a decentralized strategy principally in line with the OOP paradigm
sketched above. Similar to a database, they represent a structured
container of information (separated e.g. by type, color or other formal
properties) which produces contingent views of a given topic; in this
sense, mood boards, even as 'static' media artefacts, can be considered
as a cognitive 'simulation' of possible scenarios just as a piece of
program code is a static 'text' describing a dynamic rule system.
As a concluding side note, business models behind the
actual games (or, by inference, other media genres) created in such an
environment increasingly reflect the OOP rationales that arguably
informed their production. One notable recent example is Kwari
(Kwari Ltd., 2007), a competitive
MMO first-person shooter which imposes no fixed retail costs but
requires players to create an account and buy virtual ammunition for
real money; moreover, players agree on a 'stake' beforehand and, upon
hitting others or being hit, win and lose money respectively. This type
of business model ties in closely with concurrent notions like advocacy
marketing and the 'collective intelligence' of user groups; it arguably
pursues a decentralized, quasi-OOP strategy of providing a loose
framework (the accounts) and a few basic algorithms (the emergent
playing styles), creating 'instances' of players as semi-autonomous
'objects' which form part of a consistent rule ecology that, in this
particular case, simultaneously creates a self-regulating 'financial
market.' While those concepts are still a novelty, they become
increasingly relevant, promoted by developments like the adoption of
micro-payment systems from South-East Asian digital game economies. A
final, brief case study shal demonstrate how, sensibly applied, the
translation of programmable infrastructures into business models can
also open up new opportunities.
Dave Perry's Top Secret project is an attempt at
utilizing the potential of community-driven development to create an
MMOG with a semi-moderated 'team' of ten-thousands of volunteers tied
together through programmable applications like a web environment and
asset management tools. (cf. http://www.videogameteam.com/) Often
discounted as a quirky experiment or publicity stunt, the project
should rather be read as a business and development model which is
intrinsically designed after the logic of the programmable tools it
employs, using participatory culture and specifically fan communities
as 'hardware' to run on. (cf. /GameStar/dev 2, 2007) The uniqueness of
the project thereby provided for enough applicants to provide the same
virtually limitless 'computing' resources that characterize OOP
programs which often dynamically utilize a large number of 'objects'
for specific purposes. For instance, this constellation implicitly lead
to unconventional design processes like having numerous contributors
provide hundreds of variations of a required artwork and using online
polls or occasionally simply a managerial decision by Dave Perry to
select. This mode of development conceptually mimics 'brute force'
search algorithms, even using comparably few heuristics by providing
only the most basic specifications; at the same time, it allows for the
Top Secret project to retain a similar level of
flexibility like OOP code.
The development process is segmented as much as
possible, following the general programming strategy of using modular,
evolving building blocks of code and constant prototyping, epitomized
e.g. in fairly recent development styles like Extreme Programming (cf.
e.g. Beck, 2000); thus, the project consists of separate but
interlocking development 'loops' much like a well-written program. As a
side note, Extreme Programming itself exhibits several instances of
program code rhetoric like TOC/CCPM, for instance referencing costs,
quality, time and scope as "four variables" that need to be adjusted
and related to each other successfully; ironically, though, the authors
refer to these variables as "levers on some big Victorian steam
machine", thus immediately semanticizing their implied program code
understanding of handling teams and projects. (27)
Finally, even the very extensively utilized programming
practice of code re-use (exemplified e.g. by the numerous
derivatives of popular game engines) can be tapped into with the Top
Secret project since internal user groupings formed during
development, the web environment and even high-quality assets created
using the 'brute force' method which did not fit the style of this
particular project can be re-used in upcoming business ventures. While
this article only allows for a cursory glance, I investigate the topic
of economic models derived from program code properties more closely in
my dissertation. Perry's Top Secret project will undoubtedly
exhibit several initial problems in the final product as would be
expected from such a radical rethinking of production techniques but it
already clearly demonstrates the potential of synchronizing one's
business model with the enabling set of technologies.
Stefan Werning works in
product analysis department of Nintendo of Europe, where he started in
March 2007. He joined the Convergence Culture Consortium as a
consulting researcher during his semester as a visitor of the
Comparative Media Studies Program at MIT when he was a doctoral
candidate and associate lecturer at the Asian Studies Center in Bonn,
Germany. He writes on topics including e-learning solutions based on
digital games and modeling terrorism in recent military policies to
interactive media analysis.